PARATUBERCULOSIS

Paratuberculosis is a disease that generates great economic losses and big health concerns. It is caused by bacteria of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and it is endemic throughout the world affecting both meat and milk industry.


Diagnosis of subclinical infection is very difficult an therefore, vaccination remains as a key tool for effective control of Paratuberculosis.

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Affected species

Sheep

Goats

Cattle

Contamination

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is able to survive in the environment for relatively long periods

11 months

In soil
contaminated
with faeces

Between
5 and 9
months

In water

17 months

In laboratory
conditions

Transmission

Oral
transmission


Contaminated Food, soil, water, milk and colostrum

Transplacental transmission


In almost 40% of cows with subclinical disease

Risk factors

Replacement of animals from herds with unknown paratuberculosis status

Contact of own Young replacers with adult animal faeces

Water and food contamination

Contamination of calves by faeces in udders

Poor equipement hygiene

Stages of disease

I
Silent
infection

No clinical signs
No transmission
(10-14 animals)

II
Subclinical
disease

No clinical signs
Transmission
(4-8 animals)

III
Clinical
disease

Clinical signs
and transmission
(1-2 animals)

IV
Terminal
disease

Advanced disease
(1 animal)

1 animal in stage 4, indicates 24 animals with the proliferation of the disease

Clinical signs

Diarrhoea and
progressive
weight loss

General
weakness

Decrease of
production

Economic losses

Death

Of animals

US $200 - $900 of losses

Per cow

30 to 54 kg decrease

Of meat
production

700 liters
per cow decrease

Of milk
production

30% reduction

Of market value
per animal

50% decrease

Of productive life

How to control and prevent

Biosafety

Reducing
contamination by
adequate sanitary
control. Wash and
disinfect the
equipment

Education

Of farmers

Vaccination

Reduce risks of
microbial
contamination and
production losses

Diagnostic methods

PCR or Elisa
and bacterial
culture

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