Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by midges Culicoides.

BLUETONGUE

Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants transmitted by midges Culicoides. The virus belongs to the family Reoviridae and contains 24 recognized serotypes.


Vaccination is the most effective and practical measure to minimize losses associated with this disease.

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Susceptible species

Sheep

Cattle

Deer

Goats

Clinical infection
Subclinical infection and reservoirs

Risk factors

High
temperature

Lower rainfall and
stagnant water

Subclinical
reservoirs
infected

Introduction of
susceptible animals
in endemic areas

Increase of vector spread

Transmission

Biological Vector


Midges bites of the genus Culicoides

Infected midge

Vector bites host

Vector bites host

Non-infected midge


It can fly from 2 Km up to 300 Km
with blow on the wind

Transplacental
transmission

Signs and symptoms

Hemorrhage
& Edema

Oral and Nasal lesions


Tissue ulceration,
Salivation & Nasal
discharge, Swelling of lips,
tongue and jaw, Cyanosis
of the tongue (Blue tongue)

Pedal lesions


Coronary
inflammation
and lameness

Temporary
infertility and
abortions

Weight loss

Economic losses

Up to 70%

Of mortality

Abortions
up to 80%

Lower
fertility rate

Less
production

Of milk
and meat

Movement
restrictions

Of animals

Disruption
growth

Of wool

How to control and prevent

Surveillance

Epidemiologic
surveillance

Diagnosis

by ELISA, PCR

Vaccination

The best way to
control the disease
and transmission

Control of
midges

Insecticides

Restriction

of infected
animals

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